شناسایی منابع مقاومت نسبت به نژادهای TTKSK و TTKTK (متعلق به گروه نژادی Ug99) بیمارگر زنگ ساقه در برخی از ژنوتیپ‌های سینتتیک هگزاپلویید گندم

نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل (مغان)، سازمان تحقیقات،

2 استادیار پژوهش، موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

زنگ سیاه یا ساقه گندم با عامل قارچی Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) خسارت‌زاترین بیماری گندم در سراسر جهان می‌باشد. نژاد TTKSK (Ug99) و واریانت‌های مشتق شده از نژاد اولیه از نژادهای بسیار پرآزار قارچ Pgt می‌باشند که تولید جهانی گندم را با خطر بسیار جدی مواجه ساخته‌اند. تاکنون نژادهای TTKSK و TTKTK (از گروه نژادی Ug99) از مناطق مختلف کشور گزارش شده‌اند و این موضوع امنیت غذایی کشور را تهدید می‌کند. شناسایی ژنوتیپ‌های گندم مقاوم به نژادهای متفاوت Pgt و بکارگیری آن‌ها در برنامه‌های به‌نژادی تولید ارقام مقاوم، نه تنها از خسارت ناشی از این بیماری ممانعت نموده بلکه اقدامی برای جلوگیری و کاهش مصرف سموم در مبارزه علیه بیماری مذکور به‌حساب می‌آید. با توجه به ماهیت تولید ژنوتیپ‌های سینتتیک هگزاپلویید گندم (وجود اجداد وحشی در شجره ژنوتیپ‌ها) و وجود تنوع ژنتیکی بالا در این ژنوتیپ‌ها پیدا کردن منابع مقاومت موثر جدید نسبت به نژادهای گروه Ug99 در این ژنوتیپ‌ها دور از انتظار نبود. ﺑﻪ‌همین ﻣﻨﻈﻮر مقاومت 346 ژنوتیپ سینتتیک گندم به‌همراه شاهد حساس (مک‌نیر701) با دو نژاد TTKSK و TTKTK در مرحله گیاهچه‌ای در شرایط گلخانه در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار ارزیابی گردید. ﮔﯿﺎﻫﭽﻪﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از مخلوط یوریدینیوسپور و روغن سالترول 170 در ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ 12 از مقیاس زادوکس ﻣﺎﯾﻪ‌زﻧﯽ ﺷﺪﻧﺪ. ﭼﻬﺎرده روز ﭘﺲ‌از ﻣﺎﯾﻪ‌زﻧﯽ گیاهچه‌ها ﺗﯿﭗ آﻟﻮدﮔﯽ ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس روش تغیر یافته مک‌اینتاش و همکاران ﺗﻌﯿﯿﻦ ﺷﺪ. تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که در شرایط نژادهای مورد مطالعه بین ژنوتیپ‌های گندم تنوع ژنتیکی و اختلاف بسیار معنی‌داری وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of Resistance Sources to TTKSK and TTKTK (Ug99 race group) of Stem Rust Pathogen in some Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat Genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Omrani 1
  • ramin roohparvar 2
1 Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Moghan, Iran
2 Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Black or stem wheat rust caused by fungal Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) is the most damaging wheat disease worldwide. The race TTKSK (Ug99) and derived variants are highly virulence races of Pgt fungi that pose a serious threat to global wheat production. So far, TTKSK and TTKTK (from Ug99 group) have been reported from different parts of the country that threatening the country's food security. Identification of wheat genotypes resistant to different Pgt races and their use in breeding programs to produce resistant cultivars not only prevent the damage caused by this disease but also prevent and reduce the use of poisons in the fight against this disease. Due to the nature of production of wheat hexaploid synthetic genotypes (presence of wild ancestors in pedigree genotypes) and high genetic diversity in these genotypes finding new sources of effective resistance to Ug99 group races in these genotypes was expected. For this purpose, resistance of 346 genotypes of wheat with susceptible control (McNair 701) genotypes were evaluated with TTKSK and TTKTK races in a completely randomized block design with three replications under greenhouse conditions. Seedlings inoculation using a mixture of uridiniospor and salterol 170 at seedling stage (the 12th step of the Zadoks et al. scale). After 14 days, infection type of genotypes were recorded based on a modified method by Macintosh et al. Analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference between the genotypes of wheat in races conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Virulence
  • Infection type
  • isolate
  • Resistance genes
  • Urediniospore
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