نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نهران، ایران

2 گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 آزمایشگاه نماتولوژی، گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشگاه لیمپوپو، مرکز تحقیقاتی عالی زیست فناوری سبز، لیمپوپو، آفریقای جنوبی

4 گروه زیست شناسی دانشکده علوم پایه، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

تعامل قارچ عامل بیماری پوسیدگی ریشه و ساقه خیار Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum و نماتد Meloidogyne javanica روی سه رقم خیار خصیب، نگین و دستجردی در آزمایشی به صورت طرح کاملا تصادفی در قالب فاکتوریل با 14 تیمار در چهار تکرار شامل شاهد، مایه‌زنی قارچ به تنهایی، نماتد به تنهایی در چهار سطح 1500، 3000، 4500 و 6000 لارو نماتد در هزار گرم خاک و مایه زنی قارچ به دو صورت همزمان و یک هفته بعد از مایه‌زنی با نماتد در شرایط گلخانه بررسی گردید. در مایه‏زنی همز‏مان قارچ و نماتد با سطح جمعیتی 6000 لارو، شاخص گال ریشه نسبت به تیمار های تلقیح شده با نماتد به تنهایی 23/07 درصد کاهش یافت. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین میانگین تعداد تخم، تعداد کیسه تخم در گرم ریشه و شاخص گال به ترتیب2488/38، 15/30 و4/33 مربوط به مایه ‏زنی گیاه با 6000 لارو به تنهایی بود. حضور نماتد (6000 لارو) باعث افزایش 67/81 درصدی شاخص پژمردگی نسبت به مایه‌زنی با قارچ به تنهایی شد. همچنین به طور میانگین در ارقام خیار در تیمار مایه‌زنی قارچ بعد از نماتد شاخص پژمردگی نسبت به مایه‌زنی همزمان 35/03 درصد در سطح جمعیتی شش لارو در گرم خاک افزایش نشان داد، همچنین این تیمار موجب کاهش27/23 درصدی وزن تر شاخساره گیاه و افزایش 3/5 برابری شاخص پژمردگی ارقام خیار نسبت به شاهد شد. نتایج نشان داد که حضور نماتد و قارچ یک عامل تشدید کننده بیماری محسوب
می‌شود که این مورد در رقم نگین کاملا مشخص بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on the interaction between the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum on some cucumber cultivars under greenhouse condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • mehdi mohamadiansarcheshmeh 1
  • Saeed Rezaee 2
  • ebrahim shokoohi 3
  • alireza iranbakhsh 4

1 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural Sciences and Food Industries, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Plant Protection, College of Agricultural Sciences and Food Industries, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Nematology Laboratory, Department of Plant Protection, University of Limpopo, Green Biotechnologies Research Centre of Excellence, Limpopo, South Africa

4 Department of Biology, College of Basic Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

In order to study the interaction of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum and Meloidogyne javanica a survey on three cucumber cultivars was conducted in the greenhouse condition. The experiments were laid out in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD) within 14 treatments including control, fungi alone, nematode alone in four inoculations level viz. 1500, 3000, 4500 and 6000 J2s, fungus + nematode simultaneously, fungus a week after nematode inoculation with 4 replications. Simultaneous fungus and nematode (6000 J2s) inoculation resulted in a %23.07 reduction in nematode gall index. The results showed that the highest mean egg number and number of egg sac per gram of root and gall index in the three cucumber cultivars were 3155.2, 15.30 and 4.33, respectively, for inoculation of the plant with 6000 nematode juvenile. The presence of nematodes (6000 J2s) increased the wilting index by 67.81% compared to fungus inoculation alone, and also, in fungal inoculation treatments, after the nematode inoculation (6000 J2s), the wilting index increased by 35.03% compared to the simultaneous inoculation. The results indicated that decreasing of 27.23% fresh shoot mass and the increasing of 3.5-fold wilting index of the cucumber cultivars to control caused by M. javanica at 6000 J2 → F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum (one week later of inoculation) after 45 days. In conclusion, the results indicated that simultaneous infection of M. javanica and F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum have synergistic effect on disease which was quite clear in Negin cultivar.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cucumber
  • Fungus
  • Interaction
  • nematode variable
  • plant growth parameters
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