بررسی برهمکنش نماتد ریشه‌گرهی Meloidogyne javanica و قارچ Verticillium dahliae در گوجه‌فرنگی

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد بیماری شناسی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد (zeinab_mahboubi@ymail.com

2 دانشیار بیماری شناسی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد (olia100@yahoo.com).

3 استاد بیماری شناسی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان (sharifna@cc.iut.ac.ir).

چکیده

برهمکنش Meloidogyne javanicaو قارچ Verticillium dahliae روی گوجه­فرنگیدر شرایط گلخانه بررسی شد. نماتد و قارچ در حالات مختلف زمانی به صورت نماتد دو هفته قبل از قارچ، نماتد همزمان با قارچ، قارچ دو هفته قبل از نماتد، نماتد تنها و قارچ تنها مایه­زنی شدند و برهمکنش آنها ارزیابی شد. نتایج نشان داد که حضور توام این عوامل بیمارگر در خاک موجب بیشترین کاهش شاخص­های رشدی شده و این کاهش در تیمار نماتد دو هفته قبل از اضافه کردن قارچ و نماتد همزمان با قارچ مشهودتر بود. بالاترین شاخص شدت بیماری 90 روز پس از مایه­زنی قارچ در تیمار نماتد دو هفته قبل از قارچ مشاهده گردید، که اختلاف معنی­داری با تیمار قارچ به تنهایی داشت و در کلیه تیمارهایی که قارچ را دریافت کرده بودند شاخص شدت بیماری بیش از دو بود. حضور نماتد باعث افزایش شدت بیماری پژمردگی ورتیسلیومی گوجه­فرنگی شد در حالی که حضور قارچ شاخص­های بیماری­زایی و رشدی نماتد را کاهش داد. کمترین میزان شاخص قهوه­ای شدن بافت آوندی و درصد کلونیزاسیون ساقه در تیمار قارچ به تنهایی مشاهده شد. به عبارتی نماتد موجب افزایش این شاخص و درصد کلونیزاسیون ساقه شد. بالاترین درصد کاهش طول گیاه در تیمارهایی که هر دو عامل بیمارگر حضور داشتند، مشاهده گردید. برهمکنش عوامل مذکور با کاهش شاخص­های رشدی گیاه و افزایش بیماری پژمردگی گوجه­فرنگی خسارت وارده به گیاه را افزایش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on the interaction between Meloidogyne javanica and Verticillium dahliae on tomato

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Mahboubi 1
  • M. Olia 2
  • B. Sharifnabi 3
چکیده [English]

Interaction between nematode Meloidogyne javanica and fungus Verticillium dahliae on tomato in greenhouses were investigated.Nematode and the fungus inoculated in different time intervals, nematode two weeks before the fungus, nematode and the fungus at the same time, fungus two weeks before the nematode, nematode alone and the fungus alone and the interaction of the pathogen agents were tested.The results showed that the presence of the both of the pathogens in the soil can lead to the greatest reduction in growth factors and the reduction in nematode two weeks before the fungus and nematode+ fungus (simultaneous) treatments was more significant.The highest disease severity index was observed after 90 days in the nematode two weeks before the fungus treatment, that was significantly different with fungus alone treatment and in all fungus received treatments disease severity index was more than two.Presence of the nematode M. javanica increased severity and rate of wilting caused by V. dahliae on tomato while the presence of fungus, reduced nematode pathogenicity and population indices.The least amount of vascular tissue browning index and stem colonization percent was observed in treatment with fungus alone inoculated and in other words, nematode increases vascular tissue browning index and stem colonization percent.The highest plant height reduction observed in the treatments where both of the pathogens were present.The interaction between pathogen agents with reduction in growth factors indices and increase in tomato wilt disease increases the damage to the plant

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • wilt
  • pathogenesis
  • Colonization
  • disease severity index
  • browning index

 

Brodie B. B. and Cooper W. E. 1964. Relation of parasitic nematodes to postemergence damping-off of cotton. Phytopathology 54: 1023-1027.

Chen P. and Roberts P. A. 2003. Virulence in Meloidogyne hapla differentiated by resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Nematology 5: 39-47.

Devay J. E., Gutierrez A. P., Pullman G. S., Wakeman R. J., Garber R. H., Jeffers D. P., Smith S. N., Goodell P. B. and Roberts P. A. 1997. Inoculum densities of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and Meloidogyne incognita in relation to the developmentof Fusarium wilt and the phenology of cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum). Phytopathology 87: 341-346.

Eisenback J. D. and Triantaphyllou H. H. 1991. Root-knot nematode: Meloidogyne spp. and races, pp. 191-274. In: W. R. Nickle (Ed.). Manual of Agricultural Nematology. Marcel Dekker, New York, USA.

Elena K. and Paplomatas E. J. 1998. Vegetative compatibility groups within Verticillium dahliae isolates from different hosts in Greece. Plant Pathology 47(5): 635-640.

Erwin D. C., Tsai S. D. and Khan R. A. 1976. Reduction of the severity of Verticillium wilt of cotton by the growth retardant, tributyl (5-chloro-2-thienyl methyl) phosphonium chloride. Phytopathology 66 :106-110.

FAO. 2012. http://www.fao.org.

FAO. 2014. http://www.fao.org.

France R. A. and Abawi G. S. 1994. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli on selected been genotypes. Nematology 26: 467-474.

Gold J., Lee B .and Robb J. 1996. Colonization of tomatoes by Verticillium dahliae: determinative phase II. Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 1279-1288.

Gracia J. A., Reeleder R. D. and Belair G. 1991. Interactions between Pythium tracheiphilum, Meloidogyne hapla and Pratylenchus penetrans on lettuce. Phytoprotection 72: 105-114.

Hadizadeh I. and Banihashemi Z. 2005. Reaction of Pistacia vera cultivars to Verticillium dahliae the causal agent of vascular wilt. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology 41: 561-583.

Haghighi H., Taheri A. H., Razavi S. E., Tanhamaafi Z. and Mamaghani M. 2008. Investigation greenhouse of Interaction Race two Root-Knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and Verticillum dahliae agent Verticillium wilt Olive (Olea europaea) Seedlings in Gorgan. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources 15(4): 163-178.

Harris A. R. and Ferris H. 1991. Interactions between Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne spp. in Vigna unguiculata. 2. Specificity of different taxa. Plant Pathology 40: 457-464.

Hartman K. M. and Sasser J. N. 1985. Identification of Meloidogyne species on the basis of differential host test and perineal-pattern morphology methodology, pp. 69-77. In: K. R. Barker C. C. Carter and J. N. Sasser (Eds). An advanced treatise on Meloidogyne, volume 1. Biology and control. Raleigh: North Carolina State University Graphics.

Hosseininejad S. A. and khan M. W. 2000. Interactions of Root-Knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Race1), and wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporium f.sp. ciceri on chick-pea cultivars. Entomology and Phytopathology 68(1-2): 1-12.

Hussey R. S. and Barker K. R. 1973. Comparison of methods of collecting inocula of Meloidogyne spp. including a new technique. Plant Disease Reporter 57: 1025-1028.

Jacobsen B. J., MacDonald D. H. and Bissonette H. L. 1979. Interaction between Meloidogyne hapla and Verticillium albo-atrum in the Verticillium wilt disease of potato. Phytopathology 69: 288-292.

Kamali dehghan E., Saeedizadeh A., Eskandari A. and Rahjo V. 2013. A study on effects of Fusarium wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on growth factors tomato cultivars. Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding 9(2): 57-75.

Khan A., Atibalentja N. and Eastburn D. M. 2000. Influence of inoculum density of Verticillium dahliae on root discoloration of horseradish. Plant Disease 84: 309-315.

Korolev N., Katan J. and Katan T. 2000. Vegetative compatibility groups of Verticillium dahliae in Israel: their distribution and association with pathogenicity. Phytopathology 90: 529-536.

Mai W. F. and Abawi G. S. 1987. Interactions among root-knot nematodes and Fusarium wilt fungi on host plants. Phytopatholgy 25: 317-338.

Martin M. J., Riedel R. M. and Rowe R. C. 1982. Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans: Interactions in the early dying complex of potatoes in Ohio. Phytopathology 72: 640-644.

Ministry of Agriculture_Jahad. 2016. http://amar.maj.ir.

Oostenbrink M. 1966. Major characteristics of the relation between nematodes and plants. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen 66: 1-46.

Orion D. and Krikun J. 1976. Response of Verticillium-resistant and Verticillium-susceptible tomato varieties to inoculation with the nematode Meloidogyne javanica and with Verticillium dahliae. Phytoparasitica 4: 41-44.

Perry N., Moens M. and Starr J. L. 2009. Root-knot nematodes. Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International (CABI). North American Office. 520 p.

Powell N. T. 1971. Interaction between nematodes and fungi: a disease complex. Annual Review of Phytopathology 9: 253-274.

Saeedizadeh A., kheiri A., Okhovvat S. M., Zad J. and Hoseininejad S. A. 2006. A study annual seedlings growth yellow olivea cultivar in the presence nematode of Meloidogyne javanica and fungus Verticillium dahliae. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 37(5): 793-800.

Saeedizadeh A. and niasti F. 2011. Interaction root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica and wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae on seedlings of olive cultivars. Iranian Journal of Plant Protection Science 42: 125-135.

Sasanelli N., Fontanazza G., Lamberti F., Daddabbo T., Patumi M. and Vergari G. 1997. Reaction of olive cultivars to Meloidogyne species. Nematologia Mediterranea 25: 183-190.

Sharma V. K. and Nowak J. 1998. Enhancement of Verticillium wilt resistance in tomato transplants by in vitro co-culture of seedlings with a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (Pseudomonas sp. strain PsJN). Canadian Journal of Microbiology 44: 528-536.

Sikora R. A. and Fernandez E. 2005. Nematode parasites of vegetables, pp. 319-392. In: Luc M., Sikora R. A. and Bridge J. (Eds.). Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. CAB International, Wallingford UK.

Starr J. L. and Martyn R. D. 1991. Reaction of cotton cultivars to Fusarium wilt and root-knot nematodes. Nematropica 21: 51-58.

Taylor A. L. and Sasser J. N. 1978. Biology, identification and control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). North Carlina State University Graphics, 111 p.

Wheeler T. A. 1. and Riedel R. M. 1994. Interactions among Pratylenchus penetrans, P. scribneri, and Verticillium dahliae in the potato early dying disease complex. Journal of Nematology 26(2): 228-234.