فراوانی جداسازی برخی از میکروارگانیسم‌ها و بیمارگرهای گیاهی همراه با عارضه واکاری باغ‌های هلو در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری

نویسنده

بخش تحقیقات گیاه‌پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی چهارمحال و بختیاری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، شهرکرد.

چکیده

در حال حاضر، عارضه واکاری یا کوتاهی عمر درختان هلو، در باغ‌های واکاری شده، به‌عنوان مهم‌ترین عامل محدودکننده تولید این محصول در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری است. طی سال‌های 96-1393 ضمن بازدید از باغ‌های هلو واکاری شده در این استان 108 نمونه از اندام‌های گیاهی و خاک اطراف ریشه (فراریشه) جمع‌آوری شد و موردبررسی آزمایشگاهی جهت جداسازی و شناسایی میکروارگانیسم‌ها و بیمارگرهای همراه با علائم عارضه واکاری هلو قرار گرفت. علائم عارضه به‌صورت زردی عمومی و کلروز، کم‌رشدی، خزان زودرس، تغییر رنگ برگ‌ها، پوسیدگی طوقه و ریشه، شانکر و مرگ درختان جوان بود. از نمونه‌های گیاهی و خاک به ترتیب فراوانی جدایه‌هایی از تاکسون‌های Bacillus sp، Fusarium sp، Pseudomonas flourescens،Mesocriconema xenoplax ، Aspergillus sp،  Alternaria sp، Pantoea agglomerans، Arthrobacter sp، Phytophthora sp، Pseudomonas syringae، Pseudomonas putidae، Verticillium dahliae، Dematophora necatrix، Trichoderma sp، Streptomyces sp، Meloidogyne sp، Pratylenchus sp، Paratylenchus sp ، Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ، Pythium sp و Rhizoctonia sp جداسازی و شناسایی شد. حدود 11% جدایه‌ها نیز ناشناخته بودند.میزان عارضه واکاری و جداسازی این میکروارگانیسم‌ها در باغ‌هایی که بلافاصله پس از امحاء درختان کشت قبلی احداث‌شده و یا گونه مشابه قبلی کشت‌شده حدود 30% بیشتر از باغ‌هایی است که حداقل یک سال به‌صورت نکاشت (آیش) بوده است. بر این اساس می‌توان گفت این عوامل مهم‌ترین عوامل زنده همراه با عارضه واکاری و کوتاهی عمر درختان هلو در استان چهارمحال و بختیاری هستند. آزمایش‌های اصول کخ برای تعیین نقش و سهم این میکروارگانیسم‌ها در ایجاد این عارضه ضروری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Frequency isolation some of microorganisms and pathogens associated with peach replant problem in orchrads of Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiary province

نویسنده [English]

  • N. Amanifar
Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection Research; Chaharmahal va Bakhtiary Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Shahrekord, Iran.
چکیده [English]

At present, replant disorder and peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) short life has become an important problem in peach production, and it has seriously restricted the development of the peach industry in Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiary province. During 2014-2017, 108 samples of plant tissues and rhizosphere were collected from the peach orchards of this province. Samples were investigated to isolation and identification microorganisms and pathogens associated with symptoms of peach replant problem. Symptoms including: yellowing, stunting, abscission of leaf, leaf discoloration and chlorosis, crown and root rot, canker and death of young trees. From plant and soil samples, the frequency respectively, isolates of Bacillus sp, Fusarium sp, Pseudomonas flourescens, Mesocriconema xenoplax, Aspergillus sp, Alternaria sp, Pantoea agglomerans, Arthrobacter sp, Phytophthora sp, Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas putidae, Verticillium dahliae, Dematophora necatrix, Trichoderma sp, Streptomyces sp, Meloidogyne sp, Pratylenchus sp, Paratylenchus sp, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pythium spand Rhizoctonia spwere isolated and identified. About 11% of isolates were unknown. The amount of replant disorder and isolation of these microorganisms in orchards that were planted immediately after the destruction of previous trees or planted the same previous species was about 30% more than the orchards that had not been cultivated (fallow) for at least one year. On this basis canbe say these microorganisms are the most important agents associated with replant problem and life short in peach orchards in Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiary province. Koch's postulates investigations are necessary to determine the role of these microorganisms in this replant disease

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chahar Mahal va Bakhtiary
  • Prunus persica
  • replant problem
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