بازنگری جدایه‏های Phytophthora parsiana با استفاده از چندشکلی ساختاری تک‏رشته‏ی دی‏اِن‏اِی ریبوزومی

نوع مقاله: مقاله کامل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکتری، بخش گیاه‌پزشکی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز

2 استاد بیماری شناسی گیاهی، بخش گیاه‌پزشکی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شیراز

چکیده

تاکنون Phytophthora parsiana به عنوان گونه‏ای منفرد و بیمارگر مهم باغ‏های پسته­ی ایران به شمار آمده است. توصیف گونه‏های جدید و بسیار نزدیک به این آرایه­ی فیلوژنتیک در تبار نُه درخت فیلوژنتیکی فیتوفتورا و همچنین مشاهده‏ی خصوصیات ریخت‏شناختی، فیزیولوژیک و دامنه‏ی میزبانی ناهمگن در بین جدایه‏های منسوب به این گونه، موجب لزوم مطالعه‏ی مقایسه‏ای جدایه­های آن تحت عنوان یک گونه‏ی مرکب شده است. جدایه‏هایی که در طول 25 سال اخیر تحت عنوان این آرایه در نظر گرفته شده بودند همراه با جدایه‏های حاصل از نمونه‏برداری‏های انجام شده در سال‏های 1394 تا 1395 با استفاده از روش چندشکلی ساختاری تک‏رشته‏‏ی دی‏اِن‏اِی ریبوزومی (SSCP) مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاصل از نقوش به دست آمده نشان داد که جدایه‏های منسوب به P. parsianaدر چهار گروه کاملاً مجزا دسته‏بندی می‏‏شوند. بررسی‏ فیلوژنتیکی زیرواحد یک سیتوکروم اکسیداز سی (CoxI) با رویکرد بیشینه‏ی احتمال نیز نتایج به دست آمده را تأیید کرد و جدایه‏ها را در چهار گروه مجزا در کنار سایر اعضای تبار نه درخت فیلوژنتیکی فیتوفتورا قرار داد. بررسی خصوصیات بارز ریخت‎‏شناختی، فیزیولوژیک و بیماری‏زایی نیز تفاوت‏هایی را در بین این چهار گروه نشان داد. جدایه‏ی گروه سوم، برخلاف سایر گروه‏ها، قادر به ایجاد بیماری روی نهال پسته نبود و همچنین مانند جدایه‏های گروه اول و چهارم، در دمای40‏ درجه‏ی سلسیوس رشد نکرد. علاوه بر این، ویژگی‏های ریزسنجی اسپورانژیوم‏های گروه دوم با سایر گروه‏ها متفاوت بود. شواهد حاصل از این گروه‏بندی وجود تنوع قابل ملاحظه‏ی درون‏گونه‏ای و همچنین لزوم بازنگری در توصیف اولیه‏ی این گونه‏ی مرکب را تأیید می‏کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A revision of Phytophthora parsiana isolates based on single-strand-conformation polymorphism of ribosomal DNA

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Mirsoleymani 1
  • R. Mostowfizadeh-Ghalamfarsa 2
چکیده [English]

Phytophthora parsiana has been considered as a unique and important pathogen in Iranian pistachio orchards. The description of novel and closely related species to this phylogenetic taxon in Clade 9 of Phytophthora spp. phylogenetic trees, including P. hydropathica, P. hydrogena and P. virginiana, as well as extremely heterogeneous morphological, physiological and host rang of the assigned isolates, necessitates a comparative study of the isolates as a complex species. Isolates that have been assigned to this taxon during the last 25 years, along with the isolates which have been isolated in 2014-2015 were studied using single-strand-conformation polymorphism (SSCP) of ribosomal DNA. The results of the patterns showed that the isolates assigned to P. parsiana were classified into four distinct groups. Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I based on maximum-likelihood inference also confirmed the results and the isolates grouped in four distinct groups along with other members of the Phytophthora spp. of clade 9. Morphology and physiology characteristics and pathogenicity tests revealed some differences between these four groups. Unlike other groups, the isolate of the third group was not pathogenic to pistachio seedlings, and the same as isolates of groups one and four it was not able to grow at 40 ° C. Additionally the micrometric characteristics of sporangia were significantly different from those of other groups. The evidence from this grouping confirms the existence of a significant intra-species variation as well as the need for a revision of the initial description of this complex species.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Oomycota
  • Phylogenetic species
  • single-strand-conformation polymorphism of ribosomal DNA
  • cytochrome c oxidase subunit I
  • Pistachio
  • Fig

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