نوع مقاله : مقاله کامل پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 بخش تحقیقات غلات، مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، کرج، ایران

2 کرج، بلوار شهید فهمیده، مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، بخش تحقیقات غلات

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی کرج، کرج، البرز، ایران

چکیده

زنگ سیاه گندم ناشی از قارچ Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici، خسارتزاترین بیماری در میان زنگهای گندم است. در تحقیق حاضر، علاوه بر تعیین کارآیی ژنهای مقاومت به بیماری، واکنش ارقام تجاری، لاینهای در دست نامگذاری و لاینهای امیدبخش گندم اقلیم سرد در سال 1394 (ERWYT-C-94) در برابر بیماری تعیین گردید. مقادیر بیماری مشاهده شده بر روی ارقام افتراقی حامل ژنهای مقاومت به بیماری در مزرعه نشاندهنده پرآزاری روی 31 ژن مقاومت بود. پرآزاری روی ژن Sr31 برای اولین بار از کلاردشت و روی دو ژن Sr1RSAmigo و SrSatu اولین بار از کشور گزارش میشود. براساس نتایج مربوط به واکنش ژنوتیپهای آزمایشی در مرحله گیاهچه در گلخانه، سه رقم MV-17، پیشگام و گاسکوین، چهار لاین در دست نامگذاری C-88-7، C-88-14، C-89-7 و CD-89-10 و لاین امیدبخش C-94-6 با بروز پایینترین تیپهای آلودگی در برابر جدایه های قارچ عامل بیماری، بالاترین مقاومت را داشتند. نتایج واکنش ژنوتیپهای مورد بررسی در مرحله گیاه کامل در مزرعه نشان داد که لاین در دست نامگذاری CD-89-10، با داشتن واکنش 20R، به عنوان مقاومترین لاین از بین 48 ژنوتیپ مورد بررسی میباشد. همچنین، دو لاین در دست نامگذاری CD-90-4 و CD-90-8 علاوه بر داشتن مقاومت بالاتر در برابر اکثر جدایه های قارچ در مرحله گیاهچه، در مرحله گیاه کامل نیز بترتیب با داشتن واکنشهای 20MR و 40MR از مقاومت خوبی در برابر بیماری برخوردار بودند. با توجه به حساسیت اکثر ژنوتیپهای آزمایشی اقلیم سرد بویژه لاینهای امیدبخش، انتقال ژنهای مقاومت به بیماری به ارقام گندم مورد کاشت در این اقلیم به منظور افزایش مقاومت آنها ضروریست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation on Effectiveness of Wheat Stem Rust Resistance Genes in Iran and the Latest Response of Wheat Genotypes from the Cold Agro-climatic Zone to the Disease

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Malihipour 1
  • Esmaeil Ebrahimi-Meymand 2
  • Khodadad Mostafavi 3

1 Cereal Research Department, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Karaj, Iran

2 Cereal Research Department, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Karaj, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Karaj Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Alborz, Iran

چکیده [English]

Wheat stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, is the most destructive rust of wheat. In this study, in addition to determining the effectiveness of rust resistance genes, the responses of 48 wheat genotypes from the cold agro-climate zone of Iran, including commercial cultivars, candidate lines, and the lines of ERWYT-C-94 were determined to the disease. Disease score of differential cultivars carrying resistance genes to stem rust under field conditions showed the presence of virulence on 31 resistance genes. In this regard, virulence on Sr31 was new for Kelardasht and on Sr1RSAmigo and SrSatu for the whole country. Seedling evaluations of wheat genotypes in the greenhouse showed that three commercial cultivars including MV-17, Pishgam, and Gascogne, four candidate lines including C-88-7, C-88-14, C-89-7, and CD-89-10, and the elite line C-94-6 displayed the lowest infection types to different isolates of P. graminis f.sp. tritici. Adult-plant evaluations under field conditions showed that the candidate line CD-89-10, showing the response of 20R, was the most resistant line among all genotypes tested. Two candidate lines CD-90-4 and CD-90-8, displaying low infection types to most of the isolates, were also among the genotypes with good level of resistance to the disease at seedling stage. These lines, with the responses of 20MR and 40MR, respectively, had also acceptable levels of resistance at adult-plant stage. Considering high frequency of susceptible genotypes to stem rust in cold zone, especially the promising lines, transferring effective stem rust resistance genes to wheat cultivars for this zone is necessary.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Wheat
  • cold agro-climate zone
  • Stem rust
  • Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici
  • resistance
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