آلودگی برخی گیاهان دارویی به نماتد سیستی کلم، Heterodera cruciferae Franklin 1945 تحت شرایط گلخانه

نوع مقاله: گزارش کوتاه

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی ارشد بیماری‌شناسی گیاهی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد ملکان

2 استادیار گروه گیاه‌پزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه

چکیده

کشت گیاهان دارویی و معطر در کشورهای گرمسیری جهان به نحو چشم­گیری افزایش یافته است تا نیازهای صنایع دارویی، لوازم آرایشی و غذایی را تامین کند. بسیاری از گیاهان تامین کننده مواد خام این محصولات به انواع بیماری­ها و آفات حساس هستند. نماتد سیستی کلم (Heterodera cruciferae Franklin, 1945) از نماتدهای انگل داخلی ساکن است که در سبزی­کاری­های اطراف تبریز به عنوان یکی از عوامل بیمارگر گیاهی علاوه بر میزبان‌های اصلی، برخی از سبزیجات و علف­های هرز از خانواده­های مختلف را نیز آلوده می­کند (Jabbari & Niknam, 2014). امکان آلوده شدن برخی گیاهان دارویی موجود در منطقه به نماتد سیستی کلم تحت شرایط گلخانه‌ای مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. گیاهان مورد استفاده در این تحقیق به تفکیک خانواده عبارت بودند از:

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Infection of some medicinal plants with Cabbage Cyst Nematode, Heterodera cruciferae, Franklin, 1945 under greenhouse conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Khanzad Bonab 1
  • H. Jabbari 2
1 Former master student in plant pathology, Islamic Azad University, Malekan Branch, Malekan, Iran
2 Assistance Professor, Department of Plant protection, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
چکیده [English]

Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants has increased in the tropical countries to meet the needs of the pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries. Many plants are susceptible to various diseases and pests. Phylum nematoda includes the group of multicellular and vermiform animals, which found in all different habitats. Plant parasitic nematodes are estimated to be about 10% of the phylum. Using of medicinal plants for the human disease treatment is almost universal among non-industrial societies and countries. In current study, in addition to main hosts of cabbage cyst nematode (kohlrabia, Brassica oleracea L. var. gongylodes, and white cabbage, Brassica oleracea L. var. captita alba) that are naturally infected by cyst nematode in vegetables growing area of Tariz, thirteen species of medicinal plants namely Dracocephalum moldavica L., Melissa officinali L., Lallemantia iberica F., Sisymbrium sophia L., Sinapis alba L., Brassica nigra L., Portulac oleracea L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Ocimum basilicum L., Alyssum homolocarpum L., Cichorium intybus L., Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes, Vicia ervilia L., Eruca sativa L. were selected and inoculated with the cabbage cyst nematode under greenhouse conditions. The plants were randomly sampled in different phenological stages between germination to flowering periods. The sampled roots roots were stained using lactoglycerin-fushin acid solution and microscopic slides prepared. The results showed that beside positive control plants (kohlrabi) different developmental stages of the nematode were detected in Black mustard (Brassica nigra. L), Yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), Turnip (Eruca sativa L.), Alyssum (Alyssum homolocarpum L.) and Soothe (Sysymbrium Sophia L.) roots. The infected plants as weed in vegetable field of the area could increase the spreading of the nematode and the level of yield losses. Meanwhile, the unaffected medicinal plants could be considered as potential rotation candidates for the cabbage.

Atkinson L. E., Stevenson M., McCoy C. J., Marks N. J., Fleming C., Zamanian M., Day T. A., Kimber M. J., Maule A. G. and Mousley A. 2013. Flp -32 Ligand/receptor silencing phenocopy faster plant pathogenic nematodes. PLOS Pathogens 9(2): e1003169.

Bekal S., Niblack T. L. and Lambert K. N. 2003. A chorismate mutase from the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines shows polymorphism that correlate with virulence. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 1: 439–446.

Bellafiore S., Shen Zh., Rosso M. N., Abad P., Shih P. and Briggs S. P. 2008. Direct identification of the Meloidogyne incognita secretome reveals proteins with host cell reprogramming potential.PLOS Pathogens 4(10): e1000192.

Curran J., Driver F., Ballard J. W. Oand Milner R. J. 1994. Phylogeny of Metarhizium: Analysis of rhibosomal DNA sequence data. Mycological Research 98(5): 547-555.

Davis E. L, Hussey R. S., Baum T. J., Bakker J., Schots A., Rosso M. N. and Abad P. 2000. Nematode parasitism genes. Annual Review of Phytopathology 38: 365-396.

Davis E. L., Hussey and R. S., Baum T. J. 2009. Parasitism genes: What they reveal about parasitism, Pp. 15-44. In: R. H. Berg. and G. Ch. Taylor (Eds.). Cell Biology of Plant Nematode. Germany.

Davis E. L., Haegeman A. and Kikuchi T. 2011. Degradation of plant cell walls by nematodes, pp. 255-273. In: In: J. Jones, G. Gheysen and C. Fenoll (Eds). Genomics and Molecular Genetics of Plant-Nematode Interaction. Springer. Germany.

Doylwe E. L. and Lambrt K. N. 2003. Meloidogyne javanica chorismate mutase1 alters plant cells development. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 16: 123–131.

Dubreuil G., Magliano M., Deleury E., Abad P. and Rosso M. N. 2007. Transcriptome analysis of root-knot nematode functions induced in the early stages of parasitism. New Phytologist 176(2): 426–436.

Escobar C., Brown S. and Mitchum M. G. 2011. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the plant responses to nematode infection, pp. 157-174. In: J. Jones, G. Gheysen and C. Fenoll (Eds). Genomics and Molecular Genetics of Plant-Nematode Interaction. Springer. Germany.

Fenwick D. W. 1940. Methods for the recovery and counting of cysts of Heterodera schachtii from soil. Journal of Helminthology 18: 155-172.

Fioretti L., Warry A., Porter A., Haydock P. and Curtis R. 2001. Isolation and localisation of an annexin gene (gp-nex) from the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida. Nematology 3(1): 45–54.
Franklin M. T. 1945. On Heterodera cruciferae n. sp. of Brassica, and on a Heterodera strain infecting clover and dock. Journal of Helminthology 21(2 and 3): 71-84.

Gao B., Allen R., Maier T., Davis E. L., Baum T. J., Hussey R. S. 2003. The parasitome of the phytonematode Heterodera glycines. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 16: 720–726.

Jabbari Ghazani H. 2015. Biological parameters, populstion fluctuations, host range, genetic diversity and pathogenicity of cabbage cyst nematode (Heterodera cruciferae Franklin, 1945) in vegetable farmlands of northwest Tabriz. Phd Thesis. 129 p.

Jaubert S., Milac, A. L., Petrescu, A. J., de Almeida-Engler, J., Abad, P. and Rosso M. N. 2005. In planta secretion of a calreticulin by migratory and sedentary stages of root-knot nematode. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 18(12): 1277–1284.

Jauberta S., Laffairea J. B., Ledger T. N.,Escoubasb P., Amri E. Z., Abad P., Rosso M. N. 2004. Comparative analysis of two 14-3-3 homologues and their expression pattern in the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. International Journal for Parasitology 34: 873–880.

Jones J. T., Reavy B., Smant G. and PriorA. E. 2004. Glutathione peroxidases of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Gene 324: 47–54.

Jones J.T., Furlanetto C. Bakker E., Banks B., Blok V., Chen Q., Phillips M. and Prior A. E. 2005. Characterization of a chorismate mutase from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 4: 43–50.

Karim N., Jones, J. T., Okada H. and Kikuchi T. 2009. Analysis of expressed sequence tags and identification of genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes from the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchus avenae. BMC Genomics 10: 525.

Kikuchi T., Eves-van den Akker S., and Jones J. T. 2017. Genome evolution of plant-parasitic nematodes. Annual review of Phytopathology 55: 14.1-14.22.

Kikuchi T., Cock P. J. A., Helder J. and Jones J. T. 2014. Characterization of the transcriptome of Aphelenchoides besseyi and identification of a GHF 45 cellulase. Nematology 16: 99-107.

Kikuchi T., Cotton J. A., Dalzell J. J., Hasegawa K., Kanzaki N., McVeigh P., Takanashi T., Tsai I. J., Assefa S. A., Cock P. J. A., Dan Otto Th., Hunt M., Reid A. J., Sanchez-Flores A., Tsuchihara K., Yokoi T., Larsson M. C., Miwa J., Maule A. G., Sahashi N., Jones J. T. and Berriman M. 2011. Genomic insights into the origin of parasitism in the emerging plant pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. PLOS Pathogens 7(9): e1002219.

Kovaleva E. S., Masler, E. P., Subbotin, S. A. and Chitwood, D. J. 2005. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with reduced wheat yield in Oregon: Heterodera avenae. Journal of Nematology 37(3): 292-296.

Lozano-Torres J. L., Wilbers R. H. P., Warmerdam S., Finkers-Tomczak A., Diaz-Granados A., van Schaik C. C., Helder J., Bakker J., Goverse A., Schots A. and Smant G. 2014. Apoplastic venom allergen-like proteins of cyst nematodes modulate the activation of basal plant innate immunity by cell surface receptors. PLOS Pathogens 10(12): e1004569.

Mahdikhani Moghadam, E. 1998. Identification of two species Heterodera cruciferae and H. carotae and distribution of Heterodera in sugarbeet fields in Mashhad. Proceeding of the 13th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Volume 2: Plant Diseases & Weeds, Karaj, Iran. P. 139 (Abs.)

Matthews B. F., MacDonald M. H., Thai V. K. and Tucker M.L. 2010. Molecular characterization of arginine kinases in the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Journal of Nematology 35(3): 252–258.

Nyaku S. T., Sripathi V. R., Wiley G., Najar F. Z., Cseke L. J., Sharma G. C., Roe B. A., Cseke S. B., Ramesh E. M. and Kantety V. 2013. The expressed parasitism genes in the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis). American Journal of Plant Scinces 4: 780-791.

Patel N., Hamamouch N., Li, H., Hewezi T., Hussey, R. S. Baum Th. J,. Mitchum M. G. and Davis E. 2010. A nematode effector protein similar to annexins in host plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 61(1): 235–248.

Pereira C. A., Alonso G. D., Paveto M. C., Iribarren A., Cabanas M. L., Torres H. N. and Flawia, M. M. 2000. Trypanosoma cruzi arginine kinase characterization and cloning. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 275: 1495-1501.

Roberts F., Roberts, C. W., Johnson J. J., Kyle D. D., Krell T., Coggins J. R., Coombs G. H., Milhous W. K., Tripori S., Ferguson D. J. P., Chakrabarti D. and McLeod R. 1998. Evidence for the shikimate pathway in apicomplexan parasites. Nature 393: 801-805.

Robertson L., Robertson W. M., Sobczak M., Helder J., Tetaud E., Ariyanayagam M. R., Ferguson M. A. J. Fairlamb A. and Jones J. T. 2000. Cloning, expression and functional characterisation of a peroxiredoxin from the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 111: 41–49.

Rosso M. N. and Grenier E. 2011. Other nematodes effectors and evolutionary constraints, pp. 287-308. In: J. Jones, G. Gheysen and C. Fenoll (Eds). Genomics and Molecular Genetics of Plant-Nematode Interaction. Springer. Germany.

Smant G., Stokkermans J. P. W. G., Yan Y. T., De Boer J. M., Baum T. J., Wang X.H., Hussey R. S. and Gommers F. J. 1998. Endogenous cellulases in animals: Isolation of beta-1, 4-endoglucanase genes from two species of plant-parasitic cyst nematodes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95: 4906-4911.

Stone A. R. and Rowe J. A. 1976. Heterodera cruciferae. CIH descriptions of plant-parasitic nematodes, set 6, No, 90. St Albans, UK, Commonwealth Institute of Helminthology 4 pp.

Subbotin S. A., Mundo-Ocampo M. and Baldwin J. G. 2010. Systematics of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderinae), Volume 2. Brill NV. Leiden, The Netherlands. 512 p.

Tytgat T., Vanholme B., De Meutter J., Claeys M., Couvreur M., Vanhoutte I., Gheysen G. Van Criekinge W., Borgonie G., Coomans A. and Gheysen G. 2004. A new class of ubiquitin extension proteins secreted by the dorsal pharyngeal gland in plant parasitic cyst nematodes. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions 17(8): 846–852.

Youssef R. M., Kim K., Haroon S. A. and Matthews B. F. 2013. Post-transcriptional gene silencing of the gene encoding aldolase from soybean cyst nematode by transformed soybean roots. Experimental Parasitology 134: 266–274.